Ozment, Steven E. The Age of Reform: 1250-1550 : An Intellectual and Religious History of Late Medieval and Reformation Europe. New Haven, Conn. ; London: Yale University Press, 1980. Kindle Electronic Edition.
Chapter 7, “Society and Politics in the German Reformation” pp. 245-289. Part 1, “Imperial Politics in the First Half of the Sixteenth Century” pp. 245-260.
Ozment begins this chapter with a description of Luther’s appearance at the Diet of Worms, his subsequent disappearance, and interactions of various political personalities of the time. He explains, “To understand Luther’s survival and the success of the inchoate Reformation we must take account of the larger political rivalries and dynastic struggles of the first half of the sixteenth century” (Ozment 1980, 246). Emperor Charles V, whose reign began in 1516, had a tremendous amount of territory. Because of the extensive borders, he was always under attack, or at least the threat of attack. He never mastered the languages of his realm (Ozment 1980, 248). In Charles’ election, both Henry VIII and Frederick the Wise had been promoted. Frederick won and refused in the first ballot, then supported Charles in his election. There was later a good deal of animosity between the emperor and the Saxon electors as a result of the Reformation (Ozment 1980, 249). Ozment wishes the reader to see that politics, including the marriages in powerful families, had a close relationship with religious and financial matters. Charles V was distracted by debt, by attacks from the Turks, and by political battles. This largely kept him from paying attention to Luther between 1521 and 1530 (Ozment 1980, 253).
In 1530 at the Diet of Augsburg Charles V was able to conduct negotiations with the Lutherans (Ozment refers to them as Protestants). At this Diet the Augsburg Confession and the “semi-Zwinglian” Confessio Tetrapolitana were rejected. Despite Charles’ edicts, the lands did not return to the Roman church. The division was a matter of even military conflict until 1555, when the Peace of Augsburg was negotiated.