Gibbs, Jeffrey A. “Matthew 10:5-15: The Twelve Proclaim and Bring the Reign of Heaven." Matthew 1:1-11:1. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 2006, pp. 505-514.
Matthew 10:5-15 finds Jesus sending the Twelve to circulate in the towns of Israel, preaching and healing,receiving the care they need from their hosts (Gibbs 2006, 505). Gibbs notes there are no less than 27 imperatives in Matthew 10, with almost half being present imperatives. This may signify the start of a new emphasis in the work of the Twelve (Gibbs 2006, 506).
The passage, considered the start of Jesus' "Missionary Discourse," in effect, answers questions about the core clause, "Jesus sent these twelve" (Gibbs 2006, 507). First, the twelve are sent as God's representatives to the lost sheep of Israel. Gibbs sees the Twelve here as a replacement for the twelve patriarchs, going to the tribes to deliver God's promises (Gibbs 2006, 508). The work described here of the Twelve indicates a limit on time and scope. They will endure persecution. They will not finish going through Israel before a divine coming, which Gibbs identifies as the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 (Gibbs 2006, 508). Gibbs observes that other passages speak to the broader mission t Gentiles but that this does not (Gibbs 2006, 509).
Verses 7-8 make it clear that the work of preaching, healing, and casting out demons is done with Jesus' authority, not with that of the Twelve (Gibbs 2006, 509). Gibbs sees this as a direct continuation of Jesus' authoritative work. In verses 9-13, just as people received or rejected Jesus, they will receive or reject the Twelve. Some households are "worthy and eager to receive God's Word. There the apostles will be cared for (Gibbs 2006, 511). In the other households, the peace of God given by the apostles will not remain, but will return to the apostles. Verses 14-15 express the grim reality of divine rejection for those who reject the apostles.
Though the passage speaks most specifically to the Twelve, Gibbs does find two important applications to the church as a whole. First, God has always worked to redeem his people, and he has always worked to do so through his servants. All Christians are therefore called to go to others and call them to trust Jesus (Gibbs 2006, 513). Second, 10:10 makes it clear that workers in the Gospel are worthy to receive care for all their needs. These principles apply generally.